Geomorphologically, Lesotho is divided into four major regions: Mountians, Senqu valley, foothills and lowlands. The plateau from which the designated area for the proposed biopark starts is at the foothills that level towards the mountains in the East. The Maluti Mountains of Lesotho form part of the so-called Drankensburg range. Geologically, these mountains are a result of basaltic eruption nearly 150 millions of years ago that formed what is now called Lesotho geological formation, the youngest geological formation in Southern Africa (Schmitz and Rooyani, 1987).
Just below the Lesotho formation is the Clarens formation. This formation of aeolian origin consists mainly of creamy fine-grained sandstones (Schmitz and Rooyani, 1987). While the Lesotho formation used to cover the entire country millions of years ago, it has eroded over the years to expose the Clarens formation which normally forms stretches of plateaus in the low-lying areas of the country. The sandstone found in this formation is sometimes called cave sandstone because of its tendency to form caves all over the country.
The topmost part of this formation is often a metamorphic rock, a sandstone that has been hardened and heated by molten rock flowing over and around it during volcanic eruptions of the Lesotho formation. It may have also been hardened by other geological processes. However, the stone immediately beneath this metamorphosed layer is rather soft and weathers relatively easily, hence the development of caves.
It is in this Clarens geological formation that the Ha ‘Mamathe village is situated. As mentioned, Ka Thabeng starts at the topmost edge of this plateau and extends to the river Tebe-Tebe at the foot of the plateau.
Another underlying formation can be identified as one moves down the slope. This is the Elliot formation. This formation consists mainly of red and purple shale. It emerges at some distance from the top to the bottom and levels down towards the river. Due to the fragile nature of most of the rocks in this formation, it is very easy for soil erosion to occur if the land is mismanaged. Since the formation is levelled towards the river, this relatively flat part has attracted farmers, who formed agricultural fields that borders the rive (Figure 6). Poor soil management has indeed resulted in gullies that extend towards the river, often cutting across some of the fields, a number of which seem to have been abandoned.